Publications

Animal and Dairy Science Extension Publications
UGA Basic Balancer
(B 1371)
The UGA Basic Balancer is a spreadsheet-based decision aid to formulate basic rations for beef cattle operations. The nutrient requirements used in this program are adapted from guidelines presented in the 2000 National Research Council publication “Nutrient Requirement of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition: Update 2000." The UGA Basic Balancer program consists of a feed library, least cost feedstuff analyzer, a ration analyzer, and sections to balance rations for brood cows, bulls, heifers, and stockers. The UGA Basic Balancer is intended to be a simple ration balancer that addresses energy (TDN) and crude protein (CP) requirements of cattle. This program does not take into consideration other requirements or limitations (for example, micro minerals, fat level, effective fiber, nonstructural carbohydrates, etc.). Before feeding any rations developed in this program, contact your local Extension office to address any potential problem.
Biosecurity for On-Farm Pathogen Control in Poultry
(C 1195)
Human campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are two of the most commonly reported gastrointestinal infections worldwide and poultry meat has been identified as the main source of infection. Controlling pathogen colonies of public health concern such as Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry flocks on the farm is critical for a successful overall food safety program. Biosecurity on the farm can contribute significantly to reducing the potential for Salmonella and Campylobacter colonization in broilers.
Biosecurity Basics for Poultry Growers
(B 1306)
Biosecurity refers to procedures used to prevent the introduction and spread of disease-causing organisms in poultry flocks. Because of the concentration in size and location of poultry flocks in current commercial production operations and the inherent disease risks associated with this type of production, it is imperative that poultry producers practice daily biosecurity measures.
Equine Parasite Control: Moving Beyond Rotational Deworming
(C 1193)
Parasite resistance is an increasing problem in livestock species, including horses. Equine deworming practices have historically involved a six-week rotational deworming schedule. However, these practices have led to parasite resistance to many of our available dewormers. This publication addresses the current recommendations for deworming based on fecal egg counts, including why parasite resistance is increasing and how and when to assess fecal egg counts in horses.
Fescue Toxicosis in Horses
(C 1180)
Tall fescue is the primary cool season perennial forage grown in the state of Georgia, and toxicity issues related to the grass can have significant impacts on equine reproduction. Tall fescue is the most heat tolerant of the cool season grasses due to a fungus that grows within the plant called an endophyte. This endophyte produces ergot alkaloids that can have negative effects on animals that eat the infected forage. The toxic effects of the endophyte can be successfully managed by eliminating the grazing or feeding of toxic tall fescue, as described in this publication.
Antibiotic Therapy in Mastitis Control for Lactating and Dry Cows
(B 1516)
Antibiotic therapy continues to play an important role in the control of mastitis in dairy cows. Lactational therapy is effective against Streptococcus agalactiae but less successful against infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and other causes of mastitis. As a result, alternative treatment strategies have been developed, including a combination of both intramammary infusion and the parenteral administration (injection) of antibiotics to successfully cure quarters infected with S. aureus. Likewise, extended therapy, which involves prolonged drug administration, has improved cure rates against this organism. Nonantibiotic approaches to treatment have included oxytocin injections, but relapse rates after this form of therapy can be unacceptably high. Dry or nonlactating cow therapy is almost always more successful than lactational therapy because cure rates are higher and new cases of mastitis are prevented. To reduce antibiotic usage, selective dry cow therapy is becoming popular, and teat seals are appealing because they prevent new infections without having to rely on antibiotics.
Record Keeping for Dairy Operations in Georgia
(C 978)
Records are an asset as well as a regulatory requirement for permitted Georgia dairy operations. Although accurate record keeping takes a little additional time and effort, in some cases records (or a lack of records) can determine whether or not an operation stays in business.
Forage Systems for Horses in Georgia
(B 1224)
A good pasture and forage program can provide quality feed and normally will be the most efficient and economical means of providing a substantial part of equine rations. In Georgia, we are fortunate to have a mild climate, soils suitable for producing forages and a good selection of highly productive forage species. With careful planning and good management, adequate grazing can be supplied for up to 10 months of the year in most areas of the state. To many producers, the term "horse pasture" denotes grazing management and forage crops unique to horses. This is not the case at all. Because the horse is a herbivore, most forage crops commonly used for cattle can also be used to provide grazing for horses.
Amino Acid Content in Organic Soybean Meal for the Formulation of Organic Poultry Feed
(C 1140)
Amino acids are essential building blocks of proteins and are obtained from plant and animal products. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the chicken, while others (essential amino acids) must be supplied in the diet. In organic poultry production, the sources of these essential amino acids must be organic. This publication compares the amino acid content, digestibility, and availability of organic soybean meal with conventional soybean meal.
Creep Feeding Beef Calves
(B 1315)
Creep feeding is the practice of providing supplemental feed (grain or forage) to nursing calves. This is usually done with the use of a creep gate, which is large enough for calves to enter the feeding area but too small to allow cows to pass. Creep feeding systems vary from grain-based energy supplements to limit-fed protein supplements to creep grazing. Each system generally produces increased growth, which may or may not be profitable. Creep feeding, like any other supplementation practice, must be analyzed based on estimates of expected increases in performance and income compared to the costs of these improvements. This publication discusses the advantages and disadvantages of creep feeding.
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