Publications

Animal and Dairy Science Extension Publications
Calf Health Basics
(B 1500)
Calf health is a key variable for calf growth and performance. Producers should not expect to know all calf health issues, causes, and the most successful treatments. Instead, a producer's main goal should be to accurately identify and differentiate normal from abnormal in a calf's physical state and behavior. The topics discussed in this publications are intended to help producers notice key areas of observation while also helping to identify normal and abnormal health parameters in calves. This information can also be used to develop calf management protocols and treatment strategies.
Feeder Calf Grading Fundamentals
(B 1481)
Feeder cattle buyers, marketers, and producers are able to communicate the potential growth and carcass merit potential of individual and grouped calves using the USDA Feeder Cattle Grading Standards. Producers that are aware of these standards and their use in predicting carcass value are better suited to making breeding and management decisions to improve the value of future calf crops.
Organic Poultry Production vs. Other Systems
(C 1139)
There are a number of different poultry production systems available today, and consumers commonly confuse organic poultry production with other systems. Pasture-raised poultry and natural poultry are not organically produced, as they do not meet all or any of the standards set by the National Organic Program, which regulates and certifies production systems as "organic." Consumers should be aware of the differences between each of the poultry production systems as they purchase poultry products.
Cooling Systems for Georgia Dairy Cattle
(B 1172)
Heat stress can reduce summer milk production in dairy cows by 15 to 22 percent, according to University of Florida research. The cow's natural defenses cause her appetite to be suppressed in times of high heat stress. Less feed intake naturally leads to less milk production. Reproductive efficiency also suffers in times of heat stress, costing dollars for delayed lactation and rebreeding fees. A number of strategies have been used successfully to reduce the heat experienced by cows, and thus increase feed intake and milk production during the summer.
Fences for Horses
(B 1192)
Fences are necessary to safely confine horses yet provide them with the opportunity to exercise and graze. Because of the natural flight response of horses, they tend to injure themselves in fences more than most other livestock. In addition, many horses are extremely valuable and that justifies the extra cost of building a fence that is safe, strong and attractive. When selecting a fence, consider all three of these important functions: utility (keeping the horses in), safety and aesthetics. How much importance is placed on each function depends on the owner's budget, the value of the animals and your priorities. A number of alternatives are available for consideration.
Honey Bee Swarms and Bees in Walls
(C 824)
This circular is for property owners who have unwanted honey bee swarms on their lands or colonies nesting inside walls. It explains these natural processes and gives options for dealing with them.
Land Application of Livestock and Poultry Manure
(C 826)
This publication provides information on (1) the nutrient content of manures available for land application, (2) how to determine manure application rates and whether supplemental fertilizer will be needed for maximum crop production and (3) how to use management techniques to maximize the fertilization potential of farm manures.
Pollination of Vegetable Crops
(C 934)
Plants develop seeds through a process called pollination. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the stamen (male flower part) to the pistil (female flower part).
Oxygen Depletion in Ponds
(C 1048)
Fish ponds may experience a loss of oxygen at any time of the year, depending on the weather and amount of nutrient enrichment the pond has received; however, most oxygen depletions occur in warm weather and usually follow a period of cloudy, overcast conditions. Low oxygen concentration in pond water means stress and possibly death for the pond fish. When fish die from low oxygen, there can be serious financial consequences for commercial fish operations; for example, largemouth bass, bream and grass carp can be worth more than $3,000.00 per acre. Therefore, pond owners should consider a plan to provide aeration for their ponds before oxygen depletions occur.
Poultry Drinking Water Primer
(B 1301)
Water is a critical nutrient that receives little attention until a problem arises. Not only should producers make an effort to provide water in adequate quantity, they should also know what is in the water to be used in evaporative cooling systems and consumed by the birds.
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